Explosive eruptions at the summit of Mauna Loa: When did they occur?

Three deposits from explosive eruptions at the summit of Mauna Loa are located west, northwest, and east of Moku‘aweoweo, the volcano’s summit caldera. In map view, these deposits are fan-shaped. Along the Ainapo Trail, 1.7 to 2.2 miles southeast of the caldera, several kipuka expose a fourth distinct explosive deposit.

VOLCANO WATCH: Kilauea’s eruption is now a decade old

A little more than 10 years ago, conditions around Kilauea volcano’s summit were much different than today. The caldera floor was open to the public, and the air above it was normally clear. Halemaumau was an impressive sight, but peacefully in repose.

Monitoring Hawaiian volcanoes requires a diversified toolkit

VOLCANOS NATIONAL PARK — Most people likely know that the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) uses seismometers and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for monitoring volcanoes. However, fewer people may be aware of the full extent of our volcano-monitoring toolkit.