Armando Rodriguez shows an example of the effect a black twig borer has on coffee tree branches. Farmers and researchers alike say the borer has been more prevalent this season than in other recent years. (Max Dible/West Hawaii Today)
Leaves on coffee trees in Kealakekua show burns, some of which have been correlated with the vog produced by Kilauea during its most recent eruption that began in May. (Max Dible/West Hawaii Today)
Salvador Cancino harvests coffee from a farm in Kealakekua Monday. The coffee season for most in West Hawaii ended months earlier than expected, which is expected to impact yield and profits across the region. (Max Dible/West Hawaii Today)
KAILUA-KONA — Coffee season ended abruptly, some two months earlier than usual, for West Hawaii farmers. While causation is likely multi-faceted and open to debate, the consequences creep closer to certainties.